golang中context的作用

当一个goroutine可以启动其他goroutine,而这些goroutine可以启动其他goroutine,依此类推,则第一个goroutine应该能够向所有其它goroutine发送取消信号。

上下文包的唯一目的是在goroutine之间执行取消信号,而不管它们如何生成。 上下文的接口定义为:

type Context interface {
    Deadline() (deadline time.Time, ok bool)
    Done() <- chan struct{}
    Err() error
    Value(key interface{}) interface{}
}
  • Deadline:第一个值是截止日期,此时上下文将自动触发“取消”操作。第二个值是布尔值,true表示设置了截止日期,false表示未设置截止时间。如果没有设置截止日期,则必须手动调用cancel函数来取消上下文。

  • Done:返回一个只读通道(仅在取消后),键入struct {},当该通道可读时,表示父上下文已经发起了取消请求,根据此信号,开发人员可以执行一些清除操作,退出goroutine

  • Err:返回取消上下文的原因

  • Value:返回绑定到上下文的值,它是一个键值对,因此您需要传递一个Key来获取相应的值,此值是线程安全的

要创建上下文,必须指定父上下文。 两个内置上下文(背景和待办事项)用作顶级父上下文:

var (
    background = new(emptyCtx)
    todo = new(emptyCtx)
)
func Background() Context {
    return background
}
func TODO() Context {
    return todo
}

背景,主要ü在主函数,初始化和测试代码的sed,是树结构中,根上下文,这是不能被取消的顶层语境。 TODO,当您不知道要使用什么上下文时,可以使用它。 它们本质上都是emptyCtx类型,都是不可取消的,没有固定的期限,也没有为Context赋任何值: 键入emptyCtx int

type emptyCtx int
func (_ *emptyCtx) Deadline() (deadline time.Time, ok bool) {
    return
}
func (_ *emptyCtx) Done() <- chan struct{} {
    return nil
}
func (_ *emptyCtx) Err() error {
    return nil
}
func (*emptyCtx) Value(key interface{}) interface{} {
    return nil
}

上下文包还具有几个常用功能: func WithCancel(父上下文)(ctx上下文,取消CancelFunc) func WithDeadline(父上下文,截止时间.Time)(上下文,CancelFunc) func WithTimeout(父上下文,超时时间。持续时间)(上下文,CancelFunc) func WithValue(父上下文,键,val接口{})上下文

请注意,这些方法意味着可以一次继承上下文以实现其他功能,例如,使用WithCancel函数传入根上下文,它会创建一个子上下文,该子上下文具有取消上下文的附加功能,然后使用此方法将context(context01)作为父上下文,并将其作为第一个参数传递给WithDeadline函数,与子context(context01)相比,获得子context(context02),它具有一个附加功能,可在之后自动取消上下文最后期限。

WithCancel

对于通道,尽管通道也可以通知许多嵌套的goroutine退出,但通道不是线程安全的,而上下文是线程安全的。

例如:

package main
import (
    "runtime"
    "fmt"
    "time"
    "context"
)
func monitor2(ch chan bool, index int) {
    for {
        select {
        case v := <- ch:
            fmt.Printf("monitor2: %v, the received channel value is: %v, ending\n", index, v)
            return
        default:
            fmt.Printf("monitor2: %v in progress...\n", index)
            time.Sleep(2 * time.Second)
        }
    }
}
func monitor1(ch chan bool, index int) {
    for {
        go monitor2(ch, index)
        select {
        case v := <- ch:
            // this branch is only reached when the ch channel is closed, or when data is sent(either true or false)
            fmt.Printf("monitor1: %v, the received channel value is: %v, ending\n", index, v)
            return
        default:
            fmt.Printf("monitor1: %v in progress...\n", index)
            time.Sleep(2 * time.Second)
        }
    }
}
func main() {
    var stopSingal chan bool = make(chan bool, 0)
    for i := 1; i <= 5; i = i + 1 {
        go monitor1(stopSingal, i)
    }
    time.Sleep(1 * time.Second)
    // close all gourtines
    cancel()
    // waiting 10 seconds, if the screen does not display <monitorX: xxxx in progress...>, all goroutines have been shut down
    time.Sleep(10 * time.Second)
    println(runtime.NumGoroutine())
    println("main program exit!!!!")
}

执行的结果是:

monitor1: 5 in progress...
monitor2: 5 in progress...
monitor1: 2 in progress...
monitor2: 2 in progress...
monitor2: 1 in progress...
monitor1: 1 in progress...
monitor1: 4 in progress...
monitor1: 3 in progress...
monitor2: 4 in progress...
monitor2: 3 in progress...
monitor1: 4, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor1: 3, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor2: 2, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor2: 1, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor1: 1, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor2: 5, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor2: 3, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor2: 3, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor2: 4, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor2: 5, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor2: 1, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor1: 5, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor1: 2, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor2: 2, the received channel value is: false, ending
monitor2: 4, the received channel value is: false, ending
1
main program exit!!!!

这里使用一个通道向所有goroutine发送结束通知,但是这里的情况相对简单,如果在一个复杂的项目中,假设多个goroutine有某种错误并重复执行,则可以重复关闭或关闭该通道通道,然后向其写入值,从而触发运行时恐慌。这就是为什么我们使用上下文来避免这些问题的原因,以WithCancel为例:

package main
import (
    "runtime"
    "fmt"
    "time"
    "context"
)
func monitor2(ctx context.Context, number int) {
    for {
        select {
        case v := <- ctx.Done():
            fmt.Printf("monitor: %v, the received channel value is: %v, ending\n", number,v)
            return
        default:
            fmt.Printf("monitor: %v in progress...\n", number)
            time.Sleep(2 * time.Second)
        }
    }
}
func monitor1(ctx context.Context, number int) {
    for {
        go monitor2(ctx, number)
        select {
        case v := <- ctx.Done():
            // this branch is only reached when the ch channel is closed, or when data is sent(either true or false)
            fmt.Printf("monitor: %v, the received channel value is: %v, ending\n", number, v)
            return
        default:
            fmt.Printf("monitor: %v in progress...\n", number)
            time.Sleep(2 * time.Second)
        }
    }
}
func main() {
    var ctx context.Context = nil
    var cancel context.CancelFunc = nil
    ctx, cancel = context.WithCancel(context.Background())
    for i := 1; i <= 5; i = i + 1 {
        go monitor1(ctx, i)
    }
    time.Sleep(1 * time.Second)
    // close all gourtines
    cancel()
    // waiting 10 seconds, if the screen does not display <monitor: xxxx in progress>, all goroutines have been shut down
    time.Sleep(10 * time.Second)
    println(runtime.NumGoroutine())
    println("main program exit!!!!")
}

WithTimeout和WithDeadline

WithTimeout和WithDeadline在用法和功能上基本相同,它们都表示上下文将在一定时间后自动取消,唯一的区别可以从函数的定义中看出,传递给WithDeadline的第二个参数是类型time.Duration类型,它是一个相对时间,表示取消超时后的时间。 例:

package main
import (
    "runtime"
    "fmt"
    "time"
    "context"
)
func monitor2(ctx context.Context, index int) {
    for {
        select {
        case v := <- ctx.Done():
            fmt.Printf("monitor2: %v, the received channel value is: %v, ending\n", index, v)
            return
        default:
            fmt.Printf("monitor2: %v in progress...\n", index)
            time.Sleep(2 * time.Second)
        }
    }
}
func monitor1(ctx context.Context, index int) {
    for {
        go monitor2(ctx, index)
        select {
        case v := <- ctx.Done():
            // this branch is only reached when the ch channel is closed, or when data is sent(either true or false)
            fmt.Printf("monitor1: %v, the received channel value is: %v, ending\n", index, v)
            return
        default:
            fmt.Printf("monitor1: %v in progress...\n", index)
            time.Sleep(2 * time.Second)
        }
    }
}
func main() {
    var ctx01 context.Context = nil
    var ctx02 context.Context = nil
    var cancel context.CancelFunc = nil
    ctx01, cancel = context.WithCancel(context.Background())
    ctx02, cancel = context.WithDeadline(ctx01, time.Now().Add(1 * time.Second)) // If it's WithTimeout, just change this line to "ctx02, cancel = context.WithTimeout(ctx01, 1 * time.Second)"
    defer cancel()
    for i := 1; i <= 5; i = i + 1 {
        go monitor1(ctx02, i)
    }
    time.Sleep(5 * time.Second)
    if ctx02.Err() != nil {
        fmt.Println("the cause of cancel is: ", ctx02.Err())
    }
    println(runtime.NumGoroutine())
    println("main program exit!!!!")
}

WithValue

一些必需的元数据也可以通过上下文传递,该上下文将附加到上下文中以供使用。 元数据作为键值传递,但请注意,键必须具有可比性,并且值必须是线程安全的。


package main
import (
    "runtime"
    "fmt"
    "time"
    "context"
)
func monitor(ctx context.Context, index int) {
    for {
        select {
        case <- ctx.Done():
            // this branch is only reached when the ch channel is closed, or when data is sent(either true or false)
            fmt.Printf("monitor %v, end of monitoring. \n", index)
            return
        default:
            var value interface{} = ctx.Value("Nets")
            fmt.Printf("monitor %v, is monitoring %v\n", index, value)
            time.Sleep(2 * time.Second)
        }
    }
}
func main() {
    var ctx01 context.Context = nil
    var ctx02 context.Context = nil
    var cancel context.CancelFunc = nil
    ctx01, cancel = context.WithCancel(context.Background())
    ctx02, cancel = context.WithTimeout(ctx01, 1 * time.Second)
    var ctx03 context.Context = context.WithValue(ctx02, "Nets", "Champion") // key: "Nets", value: "Champion"

    defer cancel()
    for i := 1; i <= 5; i = i + 1 {
        go monitor(ctx03, i)
    }
    time.Sleep(5 * time.Second)
    if ctx02.Err() != nil {
        fmt.Println("the cause of cancel is: ", ctx02.Err())
    }
    println(runtime.NumGoroutine())
    println("main program exit!!!!")
}

关于上下文,还有一些注意事项: 不要将Context存储在结构类型中,而是将Context明确传递给需要它的每个函数,并且Context应该是第一个参数。

即使函数允许,也不要传递nil Context,或者如果您不确定要使用哪个Context,请传递context。 不要将可能作为函数参数传递给上下文值的变量传递。